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Astrophysics

The scientific staff of the DIFA – Astrophysics Sector is active in the fields of theoretical, computational and observational astrophysics, and of astronomical and space technology. The staff is involved in several international projects with world-class observing facilities and space missions (e.g. HST, ESO VLT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, Herschel, NuSTAR, ALMA, LOFAR, VLA/VLBI, Fermi, RadioAstron, Euclid, ATHENA). Local observing facilities, regularly used also by students, include two optical telescopes (60 cm and 152 cm diameter) located in Loiano, and two radio telescopes managed by INAF-IRA: the Northern Cross, owned by the University of Bologna, and the VLBI 32m parabolic antenna. Computational activities benefit of a local parallel cluster owned and managed by DIFA and of close relations with CINECA and its supercomputing facilities. All the scientific and teaching activities benefit from the several synergies within the unique environment at the Navile Campus, where other institutes for astrophysical research are also located: INAF-OAS, INAF-IRA, the ALMA Regional Center (ARC) and the headquarters of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).

The main research activities can be summarized as follows.

 

Stars and Stellar populations

Staff: F.R. Ferraro (Full Prof.), B. Lanzoni (Assoc. Prof.), A. Mucciarelli (Assist. Prof.), C. Pallanca (Assist. Prof.), PhD students: S. Raso. Post-Doc: M. Cadelano, E. Lapenna, S. Saracino.

Main collaborators at INAF-OAS: M. Bellazzini, E. Dalessandro, L. Origlia.

Current studies are mainly focused on the structure and dynamics of globular clusters, the properties of their stellar populations, the formation and the enrichment history of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and the physics of stellar mass loss. These investigations are carried out by using a variety of space-based facilities (HST, ISO, Spitzer, GALEX, Chandra) and ground-based telescopes (VLT, LBT, Keck, Gemini, Subaru, Magellan, NTT, TNG), and through numerical simulations and dynamical models. One of the main science streams of the group is the use of globular clusters as cosmic laboratories for Astrophysics, Dynamics and Fundamental Physics. This project was initiated with an Advanced Grant of 1.9 million Euro funded by the ERC within the Seventh Framework Programme “Ideas” and it currently is one of the major research streams of the group. The project uses three classes of “exotic stars” (blue stragglers, millisecond pulsars and intermediate-mass black holes) as test particles to probe the dynamical evolution of star clusters.  A variety of results has been obtained in this contest by the group, who published more than 60 papers in international peer-reviewed papers over the last five years.  The complete list of results and published papers can be found at  project web site.

Collaborations: INAF-OAS, ESO Garching, Liverpool University, UCLA, Universidad Concepcion (Chile), Indiana University (Bloomington, USA), Space Telescope Institute (Baltimore, USA), Chinese Academy of Sciences (Beijing, China), Observatoire de Paris (France), NRAO (Charlottesville, USA), Max-Planck-Institute für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany).

Web sites: Cosmic-Lab http://www.cosmic-lab.eu/Cosmic-Lab/Home.html

Funding: UniBo, ERC, PRIN-INAF.

 

Galaxies and Interstellar Medium

Staff: F. Brighenti (Assoc. Prof.), A. Cimatti (Full Prof.), L. Ciotti (Full Prof.), P. Focardi (Assist. Prof.), C. Nipoti (Assist. Prof.), S. Pellegrini (Assoc. Prof.). PhD students: C. Bacchini, C. Cannarozzo, R. Pascale, S. Quai.

Main collaborators at INAF-OAS: F. Annibali, M. Bellazzini, F. Calura, G. Clementini, M. Tosi.

Galaxies are studied both from the observational point of view (especially in X-ray, optical and 21-cm line), and theoretically, with the aid of numerical simulations and analytical methods (stellar dynamics, potential theory). The main activities carried out at DIFA include the study of dynamics and kinematics, structure, scaling laws, Dark Matter halos, formation and evolution of elliptical, spiral and dwarf galaxies. Strictly related investigations concern the diffuse matter within galaxies and its relationships with the environment, in particular gas hydrodynamics, extraplanar gas, star formation, AGN and SN feedback, cooling flow models and their variants, the intracluster medium. Modified Newtonian gravity is also studied from the theoretical and numerical point of view.

Collaborations:  Center for Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysics Division (Cambridge, MA, USA), Department of Astrophysical Sciences (Princeton University, NJ, USA), Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics (Columbia University, NY, USA), Department of Physics and Astronomy (University of California Los Angeles, CA, USA),  INAF-OAS, Kapteyn Astronomical Institute (University of Groningen, NL), Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics (Oxford University, UK).

Web sites: HALOGAS http://www.astron.nl/halogas/ , MHONGOOSE http://mhongoose.astron.nl/

Funding: UniBO, PRIN-MIUR, PRIN-INAF.

 

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN)

Staff: M. Brusa (Assist. Prof.), A. Cimatti (Full Prof.), D. Dallacasa (Assoc. Prof.), G. Giovannini (Full Prof.), M. Gitti (Assist. Prof.), S. Pellegrini (Assoc. Prof.), F. Pozzi (Assist. Prof.), C. Vignali (Assoc. Prof.). Postdoc: G. Lanzuisi, R. Lico, G. Migliori, M. Talia, E. Torresi. PhD students: M. Mingozzi, R. Nanni, F. Salvestrini, M. Talia.  Main collaborators at INAF: M. Cappi (INAF-OAS), A. Comastri (INAF-OAS), F. D'Ammando (Post Doc.), M. Dadina (INAF-OAS), L. Feretti (INAF-IRA), R. Gilli (INAF-OAS), M. Giroletti (INAF-IRA), P. Grandi (INAF-OAS), C. Gruppioni (INAF-OAS), M. Mignoli (INAF-OAS), M. Orienti (INAF-IRA), G. Zamorani (INAF-OAS), A. Zanichelli (INAF-IRA).

Active galaxies are important to study the relations between the central Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) and the galaxy properties. Population studies are also carried out with multi-frequency surveys to understand the physics and evolution of AGN properties of this class of sources. In particular, X-ray surveys and deep multi-wavelength observations (e.g. XMM-COSMOS, C-COSMOS, COSMOS Legacy, XMM XXL, XMM SERVS, CDFS, ELAIS, Herschel/PEP among others) are exploited to identify AGN in the key epoch of AGN-galaxy co-evolution and constrain the nature of diffuse X-Ray background. Follow-up observations in the optical and near infrared (e.g. with X-Shooter, SINFONI and SOFI data) are used to explore the effects on galaxy evolution of feedback from luminous Quasars at z~1-3, in terms of the study of their BH-host galaxy properties or kinematics properties. Accretion and ejection mechanisms are studied in the radio, infrared and X-rays to understand the complex physics of black holes up to high redshifts. The impact of AGN on the host galaxy is carried on also studying galaxies in the local and distant Universe, taking advantage of new sub-mm data from the ALMA telescope. Given the proximity of the local sources, it is possible to study in detail how the AGN radiation field impacts the physics of the molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, i.e. the sites where stars form. Moreover, samples of high and low power radio sources, young radio sources, Brightest Cluster Galaxies, and the faint radio population are investigated with radio interferometers and multi-wavelength data to understand the nature and origin of the radio loudness. Some people of this group are members of the Fermi collaboration to observe the whole  sky in the Gamma-Ray band.
In 2016, the project Super Massive Black Holes, PI G. Giovannini, in collaboration with INAF-IRA, has been included among the strategic projects for the scientific collaboration between Italy and Japan by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Collaborators are the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). Many common scientific projects are now in progress in this context, including VLBI observations. The project includes the participation of the three Italian radio telescopes for common observations with the four radio telescopes in Japan. Researchers of the present group are involved in the Square Kilometer Array (SKA; core members of Key-projects), the Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA), and in the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project. Collaborations: Center for Astrophysics (Cambridge MA, USA), NRAO (USA),  European VLBI Network, Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (Germany), European Southern Observatory.

Websites: http://www.the-athena-x-ray-observatory.eu/, http://cosmos.astro.caltech.edu/, http://www.bo.astro.it/xmmcdfs/deeprime/, http://www.sr.bham.ac.uk/~ejos/CLoGS.html  , http://www.nrao.edu/ , http://www.evlbi.org/ , http://www.jive.eu/, https://sites.google.com/site/eeasy321913/home

Funding: UniBo, PRIN-INAF, Marie Curie grants, FARB, ASI, INAF, MAECI.

 

Cosmology, clusters of galaxies and galaxy evolution

Staff: M. Baldi (Assist. Prof.), A. Bonafede (Assoc. Prof.), F. Brighenti (Assoc. Prof.), M. Brusa (Assist. Prof.), A. Cimatti (Full Prof.), L. Ciotti (Full Prof.), D. Dallacasa (Assoc. Prof.), G. Giovannini (Full Prof.), M. Gitti (Assist. Prof.), F. Marulli (Assist. Prof.), R.B. Metcalf (Assist. Prof.), M. Moresco (Assist. Prof.), L. Moscardini (Full Prof.), C. Nipoti (Assist. Prof.), S. Pellegrini (Assoc. Prof.), F. Pozzi (Assist. Prof.), F. Vazza (Assist. Prof.). Postdoc: F. Bellagamba, C. Giocoli, M. Hashim, M. Roncarelli, M. Sereno, M. Talia. PhD students: F. Loiacono, S. Quai. Main collaborators at INAF: S. Bardelli (INAF-OAS), M. Bolzonella (INAF-OAS), E. Zucca (INAF-OAS), S. Ettori (INAF-OAS), F. Finelli (INAF-IASFBO),  M. Massardi (INAF-ARC), M. Meneghetti (INAF-OAS), L. Pozzetti (INAF-OAS).

Studies of the formation and evolution of cosmic structures, based on analytic and numerical techniques, are performed in the standard ΛCDM framework and in alternative cosmologies (e.g. models with dynamic quintessence, coupled dark energy, modified gravity, primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, Axion Dark Matter). Constraints and forecasts for the cosmological parameters are obtained by using different probes, like galaxy clustering, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, redshift-space distortions, abundances and clustering of galaxy clusters, weak and strong gravitational lensing, cosmic voids, cosmic chronometers. Galaxy clusters are studied to understand their physical processes and exploited as cosmological probes (intra-cluster medium, total and baryonic mass, gas temperature and metallicity, gravitational lensing). Part of this group is involved in the GRAWITA (GRAvitational Wave Inaf TeAm) and ENGRAVE projects aimed at identifying and studying the electromagnetic counterparts of the gravitational waves detected by the LIGO/VIRGO collaboration, and exploit the results in the cosmological framework.

Galaxy formation and evolution is investigated across cosmic time with multi-band surveys performed with ground- and space-based telescopes (GMASS, COSMOS, Herschel, VIPERS, VUDS, VANDELS, XXL, ALMA-ALPINE) within large international collaborations. The observational results are compared with and provide feedback to theoretical models in order to understand the physical processes leading to the formation and evolution of different galaxy types. Low-redshift galaxies are also exploited as laboratories where study these physical processes in more detail. Part of this group is involved in the development of the future ESA-JAXA Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA).

Web sites: http://sci.esa.int/euclid/, http://vipers.inaf.it, http://www.the-athena-x-ray-observatory.eu, http://vandels.inaf.it/, http://irfu.cea.fr/en/Phocea/Vie_des_labos/Ast/alltec.php?id_ast=3015, http://www.spica-mission.org/

Funding: UniBO, PRIN-MIUR, PRIN-INAF, Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship, ASI/INAF, SIR.

 

The Euclid Mission

Staff: M. Baldi (Assist. Prof.), F. Brighenti (Assoc. Prof.), M. Brusa (Assist. Prof.), A. Cimatti (Full Prof.), L. Ciotti (Full Prof.), D. Dallacasa (Assoc. Prof.), P. Focardi (Assist. Prof.), G. Giovannini (Full Prof.), M. Gitti (Assist. Prof.), F. Marulli (Assist. Prof.), R.B. Metcalf (Assist. Prof.), M. Moresco (Assist. Prof.), L. Moscardini (Full Prof.), C. Nipoti (Assist. Prof.), S. Pellegrini (Assoc. Prof.), F. Pozzi (Assist. Prof.), C. Vignali (Assoc. Prof.). Postdoc: F. Bellagamba, C. Giocoli, M. Hashim, M. Roncarelli, M. Sereno, M. Talia. PhD students: F. Loiacono, S. Quai. Technicians: G. Cosentino, E. Rossetti. Main collaborators at INAF-OAS: S. Bardelli, M. Bolzonella, C. Burigana, A. Cappi, O. Cucciati, S. Ettori, F. Finelli,  A. Gruppuso, M. Meneghetti, M. Mignoli, L. Pozzetti, L. Valenziano, G. Zamorani, E. Zucca.

Euclid is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), adopted in 2012 in the framework of Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with launch in 2022. Euclid is a high-precision cosmology mission exploiting the combination of weak lensing and large scale structure in order to constrain the dark energy equation of state, to test modified gravity models and to address other key questions of modern cosmology.  Euclid will survey 15,000 deg2 with visible and near-infrared imaging to magAB~24-25, and with near-infrared slitless spectroscopy, plus a deeper field of 40 deg2.  Euclid will also provide an immense legacy dataset. Italy is member of the Euclid Consortium together with several European countries and the participation of NASA and CSA. The Italian participation in Euclid is mainly supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and MIUR (PRIN). Several scientists of the DIFA – Astrophysics Sector played a key role in the development (2008) and approval (2011) of Euclid, and currently have management, scientific (cosmology, clusters, galaxies and AGNs) and data processing responsibilities. Web sites: Euclid Consortium http://www.euclid-ec.org/, http://sci.esa.int/euclid/

Funding: UniBo, ASI, PRIN-MIUR.

 

Extragalactic magnetic fields and nonthermal components

Staff: A. Bonafede (Assoc. Prof.), M. Gitti (Assist. Prof.), G. Giovannini (Full Prof.), F. Vazza (Assist. Prof.), D. Dallacasa (Assoc. Prof). Postdoc:  D. Wittor, K. Rajpurohit, F. Loi. PhD students: N. Locatelli, C. Stuardi, A. Ignesti, S. Banfi. Main collaborators at INAF: G. Brunetti (INAF-IRA): R. Cassano (INAF-IRA), S. Ettori (INAF-OAS), T. Venturi (INAF-IRA).

As a result of violent processes following their evolution, galaxy clusters and large scale structures in general contain a significant fraction of nonthermal energy, in the form of magnetic fields, relativistic particles and turbulent plasma motions.  Radio observations of diffuse emission (e.g. “halos”, “relics” and “mini-halos” sources) in galaxy clusters is vital  to constrain the acceleration mechanisms of relativistic particles during accretion phenomena, as well as the origin of extragalactic magnetic fields, which still a mystery. In addition to matter accretions, the “radio-mode” feedback from AGN, associated to the complex interplay between hot and cold molecular gas in galaxies, is widespread and has a broad impact from the formation of galaxies to the regulation of cool cores, and may even spread relativistic particles and magnetic fields on  cluster-scale. We are deeply involved in both the observational and theoretical work necessary to study the elusive non-thermal radio signal from evolving cosmic structures, both by conducting new observations of cosmic structures at radio wavelengths (e.g. with JVLA, LOFAR, GMRT etc..),  complemented by multi-frequency observations (from X-rays with CHANDRA and XMM to sub-mm wavelenghts using  ALMA), as well as by preparing for the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and simulating the origin of extragalactic magnetic fields with advanced cosmological simulations (see http://cosmosimfrazza.myfreesites.net/the_magnetic_cosmic_web).

Funding: ERC Grants no. 714196 “MAGCOW” and no. 714245 “DRANOEL” (http://annalisa-bonafede.myfreesites.net/erc-stg-project-dranoel).

 

Astronomical Instrumentation and Technology

Staff: G. Cosentino (electronic engineer), E. Rossetti (software engineer), B. Marano (Prof. Emeritus). Collaborators at INAF-OAS: E.Diolaiti (MAORY P.D.), C. Arcidiacono, G. Bregoli, P.Ciliegi,  F.Cortecchia, A. De Rosa ,  I. Foppiani , M. Lombini , G. Morgante, M. Patti (postdoc), L. Terenzi,  L. Schreiber, plus several collaborators from the international partner institutes.

  • EELT and MAORY (https://www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/elt/elt-instr/maory/) - MAORY is a new adaptive optics module for the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT-ESO, 39m) based on Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO), designed to help compensate for distortions caused by turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere. MAORY is designed to provide stable and sharp images across a large field of view in the near-infrared (wavelengths from 0.8–2.4µm) in order to allow scientists to make very precise measurements of the positions, brightness, and motions of stars. A configuration of six sodium laser guide stars, arranged in a circle on the sky will provide a mapping of the different layers of turbulence high above the telescope. The resulting wavefront distortion will be computed in real time (2msec) and compensated by two deformable mirrors. This technique has been successfully demonstrated on-sky. After successful completion of the preliminary design review, leaded by the Bologna group, the construction of MAORY has recently been allotted by ESO to INAF, with E. Diolaiti as project director. The OAS clean room now is being adapted to host the construction of the instrument. The final design is under development and review. Construction will start as soon as the final design review will be completed (2018/9) and is expected to be completed by 2024.
  • Loiano telescopes (http://davide2.bo.astro.it/loiano/) - Maintenance and updating of the Loiano telescopes are shared with INAF-OAS. Science and outreach activities are currently run at the telescopes.
  • Euclid mission - E. Rossetti is responsible of developing the RESS algorithm aiming at the optimization of the redshift measurements for the Euclid NISP spectroscopic instrument data.

Funding: UniBo, MIUR, ESA/ASI.

 

History of Astronomy and Outreach

Staff: P. Focardi (Assist. Prof.)

As scientific responsible of the "Museo della Specola" which is part of the SMA (Sistema Museale d' Ateneo) of the Bologna University, P. Focardi is currently taking care of the historical instrumental heritage hosted in the Museum. She is also active in the context of the several outreach activities  aimed at making astronomy and astrophysics better known to the vast public. Funding: UniBo.

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Contacts

DIFA Reception-Astrophysics: Navile

via Piero Gobetti 93/2

40129 - Bologna

tel: +39 051 2095809

Times
Monday-Friday: 8:30 a.m.–6:30 p.m.

Marco Baldi

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5742

Annalisa Bonafede

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5749

Fabrizio Brighenti

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5799

fax: +39 209255700

Marcella Brusa

Assistant professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5781

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Andrea Cimatti

Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5817

Luca Ciotti

Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5723

Daniele Dallacasa

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5713

Francesco Rosario Ferraro

Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5774

Paola Focardi

Assistant professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5717

Gabriele Giovannini

Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5716

tel: +39 051 6399415

Myriam Gitti

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5798

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Barbara Lanzoni

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5792

Federica Loiacono

PhD Student

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

Bruno Marano

Emeritus

Adjunct Professor

Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna

Via Zamboni 33

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5763

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Federico Marulli

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5721

Robert Benton Metcalf

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5747

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Giulia Migliori

Research fellow

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

Michele Ennio Maria Moresco

Junior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5775

Lauro Moscardini

Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5726

Alessio Mucciarelli

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5705

Carlo Nipoti

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5722

Cristina Pallanca

Junior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5816

Silvia Pellegrini

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5812

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Francesca Pozzi

Assistant professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5761

fax: +39 051 20 9 5700

Mauro Sereno

Research fellow

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5714

Margherita Talia

tel: 051 2098841

Eleonora Torresi

Research fellow

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

Franco Vazza

Senior assistant professor (fixed-term)

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5704

Cristian Vignali

Associate Professor

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia

Via Piero Gobetti 93/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5785

Denis Wittor

Research fellow

Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - DIFA

Viale Berti Pichat 6/2

Bologna (BO)

tel: +39 051 20 9 5733